This illustration represents what is considered to be the seed of autophagosomes in yeast cells: the Atg9 vesicle. In red and blue are noted the amino- and carbossyl- termini of this unique autophagy transmembrane protein. In addition, one can see the Atg8 ubiquitin-like lipidation machinery, Atg21 proppin, the Pi3K kinase complex, the lipid transporter Atg2, and additional proteins identified on this structure (e.i. SNAREs..). These discoveries are published here.
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